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THE

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.

Epirorn: EDWARD S. DANA.

ASSOCIATE EDITORS

Proressors GEORGE L. GOODALE, JOHN TROWBRIDGE, W. G. FARLOW anp WM. M. DAVIS, or Camprince,

Proressors ADDISON E. VERRILL, HORACE L. WELLS, LOUIS V. PIRSSON, HERBERT E. GREGORY AND HORACE S. UHLER, or New Haven,

Proressor HENRY S. WILLIAMS, or ItHaca, Proressor JOSEPH S. AMES, or Battimore, Mr. J. S. DILLER, or Wasuinecrton.

FOURTH SERIES

VOL. XXXV—[WHOLE NUMBER, CLXXXV].

NEW HAVEN, CONNECTIOUT. Iso 3%

226450

i x

. F zy

THE TUTTLE, MOREHOUSE & TAYLOR COMPANY |

NEW HAVEN ©

oN TS LO, Were Mm. XxX XOX,

Number 205.

Arr. I.—Glacial Cirques near Mount Washington ; by J. W. SeIMMODENIAT We 222s. eee i ee i 1

I1.—Improved Method of Cleaning Diatoms; by J. M. BhaxEe 19

IlJ.—A new Occurrence of Silver, Copper, ‘and Cobalt Min-

erals in Mexico; by F. R. Windle 98) 2. hosted 23 IV.—Vertebrate Footprints in the Lower Permian of Kansas ;

perl, NOODTM eee SU ee etc ee es 1 Ol V.—Dinosaurs of East Africa; by C. ScHUCHERT --.------ 34 VI.—Recombination of Ions Produced by Réntgen Rays; 2

eee eS UNLBIEOUN) 2 28S Sie) es ras Solan oe le'= = = 39

Vil.—The Use of Selenic Acid in the Determination of Bromine Associated with Chlorine in Haloid Salts; by

Pease GoocH.and P. L. BLUMENTHAL: .-.------ +---.+-- 54 VIIL.—Oblique Illumination in Petrographic Microscope ~ Pirie oyatesl, VW RIGHT. 22262 fo 56e es ees ae 63 IX.—Notes on the Silurian Limestone of Milesburg Gap, near Bellefonte, Penn..; by T.C. Brown _---..-------- 83 X.—Cerussite Twin from the Mammoth Mine, Pinal County, Emaar. Bs POGUE 2. 0352.50 2-ch lene we es 90

XI.—The Preparation of Selenic Acid and Sodium Selenate for Use as Reagents in the Determination of Bromine in Haloid Salts ; by P. Lem BrumenTHAL.-_-...------.--- 93

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and Physics—Quantitative Determination of Copper: Dissocia- tion of Phosphorus Vapor: Iron Contamination of Laboratory Samples, 97.—Volumetric Determination of Arsenic Acid: Modern Inorganic Chemistry, 98.—Industriai Inorganic Chemistry : Discharge between Con- centric Cylinders in Gases at Low Pressures, 99.—The Crookes Dark Space, Aston.—Multiply-charged Atoms, 101.—Handbuch der Spectro- scopie, Kayser, 102.—Circulations Atmosphériques, etc., ViaLay, 103.— We and Electric Ignition: Physics, Watson: Gli Elettroni nei Metalli, 104.

Geology and Mineralogy—53d Ann. Report of the Director of the U. S.. Geol. Survey, 105.—W. Virginia Geol. Survey, HennEn: Illinois State Geol. Survey, 106.—Geol. Survey of Pennsylvania: Report of Flood Com- mission of Pittsburgh, 107.—Trias of the Himdlayas, 108.—Origin and Antiquity of Man, G. F. Wrieut: Prehistoric Man, DuckwortH, 110.— Early Man in America, A. HRDLIéKA: Geology of Park City District, Utah, 111.—Oil-Finding: Examination of Prospects: Building Stones and Clay- Products, Rrus, 112.—Mineralogy, A. H. Puruurrs, 113.

Zoology—Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, 113.—Study of the Protozoa: Ascidians of New England and British Provinces, W. G. Van NAme, 114.—The Early Naturalists, 115.—Manual of Biology: Michigan Bird Life, 116.

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence—Protein Metabolism: Researches on Cellulose, 116.—Constitution of the Proteins: Microbes and Toxins: Nutritional Physiology, 117.—Oxidations and Reductions in the Body : Soil Conditions and Plant Growth : Protein Element in Nutrition, 118.— Principles of Hygiene: Hasheesh: Geol. Society of America, 119.— American Association, 120.

Obituary—G. H. Darwin: E. J. Loomis: E. Smita: W. A. BUCKHOUT: J. M. VAN VuEcK: R. H. TRaquair: W. F. Kirsy, 120.

1V CONTENTS.

Number 206.

Page Art. XII.—Effect of a Magnetic Field on Ionization Cur- rents; bys W.. DUANE 2.35.5 22 5 121 XIIT.—Index Ellipsoid (Optical Indicatrix) in Petrographie Microscope Work; by Ff. Ei: Wricur’ 23a eee 133 XTV.—Lava Fountains of Kilauea; by F. A. Perret __-_-- 139 XV.—Some Interesting New Species of Arthropods from. Devonian Strata of illinois; by T. E. Savace ___.-_--- 149

XVI.—Mechanism of the Chlorination of Benzene in the Electrolytic Cell; by R. G. Van Name and C. E. MPARYOTY 2022000 oo ee ee 1538

XVII.—Note on Artificial Sperrylite; by H. L. Wexits__-- 171

XVIIL.—Dana’s Confirmation of Darwin’s Theory of Coral Reefs >. by W. Mo DAvis: .2¢ 02.5 22) 5. 173

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and Physics—The Isomer of the Potassium Ferricyanide, HAUSER and BIESALSKI: Osmium Tetroxide as an Oxygen Carrier, K. A. HOFMANN, » 189.—New Gasometric Method for Determining Nitric Oxide, BaupiscH and KLINGER: Preparation of Organic Compounds, E. DEB. BARNETT: A Dictionary of Applied Chemistry, Str EK. THorpe, 190.—Theory of Measurements, A. DE F. PaLMEeR: Physical Laboratory Guide, F. C. REEVE, 191.—Energy System of Matter, J. Weir: Electricity and Mag- netism, S. G. Starztine, 192.—Studies in Radioactivity, W. H. Brace: Electric Lighting, W. S. Franxuin: Lehrbuch der Optik, E. GEHRCKE, 193.—Laboratory Manual of Alternating Currents, J. H. Morrcrort, 194.

Geology and Natural History—Cambrian Brachiopoda, C. D. Watcortrt, 194.—Index to the Stratigraphy of North America. B. Wiutis: Lehrbuch der Paldozoologie, EK. S. v. REIcHENBACH, 195.—Paleolithic man, S. Woop- WARD: Isostasy, a rejoinder to the article by Harmon Lewis, J. F. HAYForD, 196.—Investigation of the theory of Isostasy in India, H. L. CrostHwalit: Effect of Topography and Isostatic Compensation upon the Intensity of Gravity, W. Bow1e: Making of the Earth, J. W. Greeory, 197.— Geological Society of America: Gems and Precious Stones of the United States, 198.—College Zoology, R. W. HeGneR: House-flies and how they Spread Disease, C. G. Hewitt, 199.

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence—Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 199.—Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 200.—Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smith- sonian Institution: Report of the Librarian of Congress, 201.—Bjerknes’ Dynamic Meteorology, 202.—Founders of Modern Psychology, G.S. HALL : Publications of the Princeton University Observatory: Publications of the Allegheny Observatory of the University of Pittsburgh : Libya Italica, P. V. pERreGNy: Archiv fir Zellforschung, 203.

tom)

Obituary—L. Swirt: G. A. Kormnic: E. v. Koken: S. A. SAUNDERS, 204.

CONTENTS. Vv Number 2.07:

Art. XIX.—Effect of High Pressures on the Physical and Chemical Behavior of Solids ; ee J. Jounston and L. H.

moor in the Earth’s hae by. H.

OO FELLER EES SSR ae ial 2 Ie ee ee ce 254 XXI—Simple Screw Micrometer; by C. Barus.---.----.- 267 X XII.—Pseudomorphs of Limonite after Mar casite ; ; by EES D:

OUTED BSS a et he oh aes eee eee 270 XXIII.—Floating Islands of Halemaumau ; by F. in PERRET 273

XXIV.—Hydrolysis of Alkyl Metallic Sulphates ; by G. A.

2 TSE SED date 2 Ses ee ee 283 XXV.—Delafossite, a Cuprous Metaferrite from Bisbee,

mpmenay. Ae EB TROGERS (22 2) kl tk ee 290 XXVI.—Electric Charges of the a- and /-Rays; by J.

PPE VV OUAN ME oe Sos bk ke eo ee 295

XXVII.—Resolution of Interference Fringes ; by C. Barus 308 XXVIIL—Purification of Barium Sulphate precipitated in the Determination of Barium; by F. A. Goocu and

wie) = LENCE SS gE ee Be tea es gg ae 311 XXIX.—Significance of the Piltdown Skull; by G. G. Mac- OL STRIDE Ea ie ele nF eo ol nT 315

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and Physics—Decomposition of Silicates, W. HEMPEL: Presence of Manganese in Animals, BERTRAND and MEDIGRECEANU: General Method for the Preparation of the Ammonium Salts of Organic Acids, KEISER and McMaster, 321.—Behavior of Nitroglycerine when Heated, SNELLING and Storm: Illustration of the Luminosity of Phosphorus, O. F. Twiss: Recent Advances in Organic Chemistry, A. W. StEwarRT: Review Ques- tions and {Problems in Chemistry, M.S. H. UNGER, 322.—Spectrum of Ionium, A.S. Russetu and R. Rossi: Excitation of y-Rays by a-Rays, J. CHADWICK, 325.—Direct Determination of the Mean Free Path of Gas Molecules, J. FRANCK and G. Hertz, 524.—Der energetisch Imperativ, W. OstwaLD: Abstract-Bulletin of the Physical Laboratory of the National Electric Lamp Association, 826:—A BC of Hydrodynamics, R. DE VILLAMIL: Geometrical Optics, S. PercivaL: Introduction to Mathematical Physics, R, A. Houston : Practical Measurements in Radio-Activity, W. MAKOWER and H. GEIGER, 328.—Physical Review and American Physical Society, 329.

Geology and Natural History—Publications of the United States Geological Survey, 329.—Second Annual Report of the Director of the Bureau of Mines, 330.—Cambrian Brachiopoda, C. D. Watcort, 331.— United States of North America, EK. BLACKWELDER, 332.—Untersuchungen iiber die Gezeiten der festen Erde und die hypothetische Magmaschicht, W. ScHwWEYDAR: Variations of Glaciers in 1911: New Zealand Department of Mines, 333, 334.--Determinative Mineralogy, J. V. Lewis: Dana’s Con- firmation of Darwin’s Theory of Coral Reefs, 384, German Central-Africa Expedition, Botany, 335.

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence—Transactions of the Astronomical Obser vatory of Yale University, 385.—Bedrock, a Quarterly Journal: Outline of Courses in Botany, Microscopy, and Pharmacognosy, H. KRAEMER, 336.

Obituary—F. TrRLLER: M. L. P. Cattuetet: M. L. TEISSERENC DE BoRT: P. Gorpan: R. Cotterr: A. WITKOWSKI: EARL OF CRAWFORD: W. G. WRIGHT: O. SCHOETENSACK.

Vi CONTENTS.

Number 208. Page Arr. XXX.—Circulatory System in the Halemaumau Lava Lake during the Summer of 1911; by F. A. PERRET... 337

XX XI.—Oligocene of the Roanne Basin and Its Vertebrate Fauna; by C. Durrrer....-l0s_..-).2 350

XXXIT. ea of the Reduction of Mercuric Chloride by Phosphorous. Acid ; by G. A. Linnarr 223 see eee 853

XX XITI.—Sky Radianon and the Isothermal Layer ; by F. W. VERY 22-2 (200 LoL S22 ote. 2

XXXIV. —Deviation Produced by Prisms ; by H. 8. UHLER 389 XXXV.—Shinarump Conglomerate ; by H. E. Gregory... 424

XXX VI.—Danger to be Guarded Against in Making Mineral Separations by Means of Heavy Solutions), by WB: HILLEBRAND: 00208: 22 0 2S a 439

XXXVI.—Two Varieties of Calciovolborthite (?) from Eastern Utah ; by W. F. Hititepranp and H,. E. Merwin 441

XXXVII.— Some Interesting Mineral Occurrences at Princeton, N:J::) by A.C. Hawkins 235s Pe

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and Physics—Transmutation of Elements, Str W. RAMSAY, etc., 451.—Active Form of Nitrogen, Strutt, 452.—Interference of X-rays, W. FRIEDRICH, etc., 404.—Researches in Colour Vision and the Trichromatic Theory, Sin W.pE W. Asney: Radium and Radioactivity, A. T. CAMERON, 456.—Spectroscopy, E. C. C. Baty, 457.

Geology and Mineralogy—Kurypterida of New York, J. M. Cuarke and R. RUEDEMANN, 408.—Correlation of the Devonian system of the Rock Island region, W. ELMER ExBLAw: Untermeerische Gleitung bei Trenton Falls (Nord-Amerika) und ihr Verhaltniss zu Ahnlichen Stérungsbildern, F. F. Hann: Annual Reports lowa Geological Survey, 460.—Bureau of Heo- nomic Geology and Technology, Texas, W. B. Painuies: Bulletin Wis- consin Geological and Natural History Survey, F. T. THwairns, 461.— Bulletin State Geological Survey of Wyoming: Bulletin State Geological and Biological Survey of South Dakota: Brief Notices of some recently described Minerals, 462.—Text Book of Petrology ; The Sedimentary Rocks, F. H. Hatcu and R. H. Rasta, 464.

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence—Year-Book Carnegie Institution of Washington, R. S. Woopwarp, 465.—Publications of the Carnegie Insti- tution, 466.—Man: A History of the Human Body, A. KrritH: Growth of Groups in the Animal Kingdom, R. E. Liuoyp: Genetics; An Intro- duction to the Study of Heredity, H. EH. Water, 467. —Fatty Foods ; their Practical Examination, E. R. Botton and C. REVIS, 468.

Obituary—J. S. Bruuines, 468.

CONTENTS. Vil

Number 209.

Page Arr, XX XIX.—Subsidence Phenomena at Kilauea in the Sremeewor toll: by KH. A: PeRpeet. 22.2222 22232. 469 XL.—Revision of the Genera of Starfishes of the Subfamily ements Dy A, | VHRR My 222 fo) os Ss 477 XLI—Hydrolysis of Esters of Substituted Aliphatic Acids ; fee Ak. Drusnmrrand H.W .)DEAN’ .2..2223-2..--22 486° XLII.—Dispersion of Metals; by L. P. WHEELzER--------- 491 XLUI.—Minor Constituents of Meteorites; by G. P. Mzr- aire ee eS ay Nt oe ee keg ee 509 XLIV.—Results of a Paleobotanical Study of the Coal-bear- ing Rocks of the Raton Mesa Region of Colorado and iMewevexico; (by BH. Hy KNOWLTON ._-.-.---. 2: +... =. 526 XLV.—Recent Discovery of Dinosaurs in the Tertiary ; by On TE eS RE ae ee es RCC 531

XLVI.—Some Variations in Two Common Laboratory Ex- periments ; by H. W. Farwett and W. W. STIFLER -_ 535

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and Physics—Radio-elements and the Periodic Law, F. Soppy, 538.—Determination of Alkalies in Rocks, Y. KrisHnayya, 540.—Allen’s Commercial Organic Analysis: A Foundation Course in Chemistry for Students of Agriculture and Technology : Osmotic Pressure: Possibility of Molecular Agitation at the Absolute Zero, A. EINSTEIN and O. STERN, 041.—Electric Carbon Are at Low Pressure, M. La Rosa, 542.—The Fit- ness of the Environment, 543.—An Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of Heat Conduction: Elements of the Precision of Measurements and Graphical Methods: Electricity, 544.—Elementary Principles of Electricity and Magnetism for Students in Engineering: Methods of Measuring Electrical Resistance, 545.—Stabilitat, Labilitat und Pende- lungen in der Elektrotechnik, 546.

Geology and Mineralogy—Formation of Coal beds, 546.—Recent and Ter- tiary freshwater Mollusca of the Californian province, 548.—Materialien zu einer Monographie der Halobiidae und Monotidae der Trias: Das Gesetz der Wiistenbildung in Gegenwart und Vorzeit: Palaeontologia Universalis : Canada Department of Mines, 550.—Die Erklarende Beschrei- bung der Landformen: Ocean-depth Charts of the Berlin Institut fir Meereskunde, 551.—Volcanoes, their Structure and Significance: Essai sur la genése et l’evolution des roches, 552.—Atlas der Krystallformen, 553.

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence—Carnegie Foundation for the Advance- ment of Teaching, 505.—The Crocker Land Expedition: Transcontinental Excursion of 1912, 554.—The Plant Alkaloids: Household Bacteriology for students in domestic science, 555.—Das Lebensmittelgewerbe: Ein Handbuch fiir Nahrungsmittelchemiker, etc.: Manual of Immunity, for Students and Practitioners, 556.—Who’s Who in Science; International, 1913: Descriptive Astronomy, 557.—Algebra for Beginners: Tables and other Data for Engineers and Business Men: Snyder and Hutchinson’s Klementary Text-book on the Calculus: Science Reports of the Tohoku Imperial University, Sendai, Japan: Bibliotheca Zoologica II, 558.— Atlas de la Reptiblica de Chile: Prehistoric Period in South Africa: Origin and Nature of Life, 559.

' Obituary—O. D. ALLEN, 560.

Vill CONTENTS.

Num ber 240;

Page

Art. XLVITI.— Relationship between Terrestrial Gravity and . Observed Earth-Movements of Eastern America ; by J.

W. SPENCER 2200104... (2a) 2 ee 561 XLVIITL.—Review of Recent Advances in South African

Vertebrate Paleontolesy; by R. Broom] -22 22 2=aaees 574 XLIX.—Melting Phenomena of the Plagioclase Feldspars ;

by N. L. Bowmn -..: 22-2 .l25.4121222 2 577 L.—Heterolite from Losteate Colorado; by W. H. Forp

and’ W. M. BRADLEY... ._2. 1... 3 600 Li.—Hydrolysis of Esters of Substituted Aliphatic Acids ;

by BE. W, DEAN 7/22 2.0 eee 605

LIT. —Some Kilauean Ejectamenta; by Frank A. PERRET.-. 611 LIIL.—KEstancia Beds of Bahia, Sergipe, and Mae Brazil ;

by J. C. BRANNER See go) pee 2 aidwician ee LIV.— New Fossil Plant from the State of have Brazil ; by Davip WHITH 22. 222-2222. 22) J es

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and Physics—New Colorimetric Method for Treatment, LENHER and CRAWFORD: Determination of Carbon by Combustion in Moist Oxygen, S. HILPertT, 637.—Heat of Combustion of Diamond and of Graphite, RotH and WALLASCH: Manual of Qualitative Analysis, W. F. Hoyt: Course in General Chemistry, W. McPHERSoN and W. EH. HENDERSON, 638.—Simpli- fication of the Zeeman Effect, F. PAScHEN, EH. Back, and A. SOMMERFIELD, 639.—Spectrum of Helium Canal Rays, J. Starx, A. FIscHER, and H. KIRScHBAUM, 640.

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence—National Academy of Sciences, 641.— List of North American Land Mammals in the United States National] Museum, 1911, G. S. Minuer, Jr. : An Index to the Scientific Contents of the Journal and Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- delphia, 642.

Obituary—W. M. Fontaine: L. F. Warp, 642. INDEX TO VOLUME XXXV, 648.

VOT. XXX V. JANUARY, 1918.

Established by BENJAMIN SILLIMAN in 1818.

THE

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE,

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ASSOCIATE EDITORS

_ Proressors GEORGE L. GOODALE, JOHN TROWBRIDGE, W. G. FARLOW anp WM. M. DAVIS, or Camprince,

Proressors ADDISON E. VERRILL, HORACE L. WELLS, LOUIS V. PIRSSON, HERBERT E. GREGORY AND HORACE 8S. UHLER, or New Haven,

Proressor HENRY S. WILLIAMS, or Iruaca, Proressorn JOSEPH S. AMES, or Batrimore, Mr. J. S. DILLER, or WasuinerTon.

FOURTH SERIES VOL. XXXV—[WHOLE NUMBER, CLXXXV}. No. 205—JANUARY, 1913. Peg FEV in Zo ‘SUE,,,

NOVI4 Lok NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT.

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OF INTEREST TO THE SCIENTISTS.

During the past month we have been very busy cataloguing our stock and new additions to it and the result is a number of pamphlets a brief descrip- tion of which we give below:

OUR NEW MINERAL CATALOGUE.

This consists of 28 pages and contains a list of minerals with prices just

to give you an idea of the variety and immensity, as well as the large number of new minerals we now have on hand. The recent new finds will be found well represented. This catalogue will be a useful and interesting addition to your literature on Mineralogy.

OUR NEW GEM CATALOGUE.

This 12-page catalogue will be found a treatise not only on all the precious and semi-precious gem stones found but also of the Synthetic Gems, describ- ing how they are made, with photo-engravings from actual examples showing the chemicals used, the gem material in raw state and the gems after being cut ready for mounting.

This catalogue describes the different collections we have prepared to show them in their various forms and colors. Not the least interesting feature are the Antique Gems and Jewelry which are worn at the present time.

CALIFORNIA MINERAL CATALOGUE WITH COLORED PLATE.

This gives a brief description of the immense stock-of California minerals and gems, also new finds that we have on hand, Asis well known, California has become the greatest Gem State in the Union, and to show you the beauty of some of her gems, we have prepared a plate in the natural and brilliant colors of two of the finest. crystals ever found. One is in the Harvard University and the other in a well known private collection. Both were originally in my stock. This picture will be a fine addition to any studio or collection, as the colors are faithfully reproduced and the plate is not attached to the catalogue.

HOW AN INSPIRATION BECAME AN ACTUALITY.

This is a little sketch, illustrated with eight half tones, showing the parts of our studio and laboratory and myself and assistants at work. It was written by the editor of the ‘Guide to Nature” and is reproduced just to

- show how our stock of interesting specimens inspired and interested him.

We trust it wil] interest you. It originally appeared in ‘‘ The Mineral Collector,” to whom we give credit.

All the catalogues will be sent free of charge. In writing please mention the JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.

ALFRED H. PETEREIT 261 West 71st St., New York City.

fteist 15

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

FROURTH SHRIES

soe

Arr. .—Glactal Cirques near Mount Washington; by J. W. GoLpruwalt.

Amone the unsettled problems of glacial history in New England, none is more inviting than that of extinct local glaciers. Yet it is true that in the last thirty or forty years no problem has been more neglected. It is natural that our early glacialists, eager to find phenomena in this country similar to those which had been described by Louis Agassiz in the Alps, and coming directly under the personal influence of that great originator of the theory of an Ice Age, saw in the White Mountains many features which they attributed to local glaciers rather than to the “drift agency.” But with the rapid prog- ress 1n glacial studies throughout the country and the growing recognition of the various types of topographic and geologic evidences of the continental ice sheet, the conception of moun- tain snowfields and valley glaciers was gradually put aside and all but forgotten. There is no question that some of the alleged evidences of local glaciers in northern New England which these pioneers in glacial geology presented are faulty, and deserved the obloquy into which they fell. Local deflection of the movement of ice in the ice sheet where it followed deep valleys will explain many a groove and scratch which these early glacialists assigned to valley glaciers. Kame building against lingering tongues of stagnant ice now explains many ridges and mounds which even to the most experienced glacial- ists of the earlier generation seemed accountable only as the terminal moraines of valley glaciers. Nevertheless it is strange that while investigators have been working out with great care and in great detail the records of local Pleistocene glaciers on ranges of the Rockies and Sierras, no one has searched for similar evidences on the highest mountain in the eastern part

Am. Jour. Sc1.—FourtH SERIES, VoL. XXXV, No. 205.—Janvuary, 1913. 1

J. W. Goidthwait—Glacial Cirques

2

Dp U/ 1a

9 ®& oO aN. 3X 9, . ac - v . c D SS a (0)

EGF PGS DL RAK, | Lf Za oO (

TT DTM

near Mount Washington. 3

of the glaciated region. On Mount Washington, if anywhere in the eastern states, one would expect to find evidences of local glaciers which developed in the shelter of its summit before the ice sheet, spreading southward from Canada, reached and enveloped the White Mountains, or which, when the ice sheet melted away, lingered for a time in spite of the return of a more temperate climate.

Tarr’s study of the glaciation of Mount Ktaadn in northern Maine in 1899* stands alone as the product of a modern physi- ographer and glacialist working in the mountainous interior of New England. In this paper Tarr stated reasons for the belief that this isolated mountain, inferior to Mount Washington in altitude, and buried, like it, beneath the ice sheet, was subse- quently occupied “as a last stage of ice action” by local glaciers, which filled several basin-shaped valleys and built well-defined moraines. The evidences given were: (@) the fresh, unweathered appearance of the precipitous valley walls, which, although lacking glacial polish, are so much smoother than the rock-strewn table land above them as to suggest that valley glaciers have only recently withdrawn from them, just as to-day they are melting out of certain valleys on the coast of Greenland; (0) “bear den” moraine deposits on the floors of the steep-walled valleys or ‘‘ basins,” described as hummocky, with kettles occupied with ponds, and strewn with blocks which have come almost exclusively from the crags above. Associated with this morainic accumulation Tarr noted what seemed to be a lateral and an imperfectly formed medial moraine in the North Basin,’ although on account of the density of the scrub forest close inspection of the ridges was impossible. ‘I should not wish to pronounce it positively a lateral moraine,” he wrote, “though I fail to see any other explanation for it;” (¢c) a high ridge of rock debris which extends in front of the mouths of two valleys, as a terminal moraine might be expected to do.

So far as I know there has been hitherto no such study of the Presidential Range as this study of Mount Ktaadn by Tarr. The early glacialists, although reporting valley moraines, northwestward moved erratics, and locally controlled strize in the lower, outer parts of the White Mountains, seem to have neglected to look for confirmatory evidence on the ranges from which such glaciers must have been fed. It is true, of course, that little attention was given in those days to the forms of mountain sculpture peculiar to alpine glaciers. Otherwise it is probable that the pecuhar “gulfs” or “ravines” of the Presi- dential Range would have been appreciated forty years ago, as

*R. S. Tarr: Glaciation of Mount Ktaadn, Maine, Bull. Geol. Soe. America, xi, pp. 483-448, 1900.

4 J. W. Goldthwait—Glacial Curques

records of extinct White Mountain glaciers, instead of being ascribed to “the action of frost, gravitv and water power.”’*

With much skepticism as to the existence of local glaciers in the lower, outer portion of the White Mountains region as reported by others, yet with a growing conviction, based on photographs and maps, that satisfactory evidences of local glaciers might be found near Mount Washington, I made plans last sammer for a field study of this problem. Accompanied by Mr. Fred B. Plummer, a graduate student at Dartmouth College, and Mr. W. Lee White, Dartmouth 1912, I spent six weeks on and around the ** Northern Peaks” of the Presi- dential Range, gathering physiographic and geologic data, col- lecting photographs, and constructing a topographic map of two of the ravines. So far as our observations bear directly upon the local glaciation of the range by valley glaciers they will be briefly sketched in the pages which follow. The con- clusions reached are: that prior to the advance of the conti- nental ice sheet over the White Mountains, either early in the last glacial epoch or during a still earlier epoch, the Presidential Range was covered by a snow field from which for a consider- able time several vigorous valley glaciers were nourished ; that the range later became completely buried by the ice sheet from Canada; and that upon the final melting away of the conti- nental ice from the mountains in question, the local glaciers did not again come into existence. In this last respect our conclusions contradict not only the opinion held by Agassiz, Hitcheock and other early investigators in New Hampshire, but that held by Tarr in Maine.

It would be unfitting even in so short a paper to fail to acknowledge the aid which I have received in this field work from the Appalachian Mountain Club, whose scores of well constructed mountain trails and paths have made the range easily accessible and whose readiness to further any form of scientific work which reveals new facts of natural history in these White Mountains I am not the first to appreciate. Iam indebted also to Mr. Guy Shorey of Gorham, N. H., for the use of the three photographs which accompany this paper.

General Physiographic Description of the Presidential Range.

The Presidential Range is a crooked and broken line of mountains that extends from Randolph, New Hampshire, southward about twenty miles to Bartlett. Mount Washing- ton, the dominating summit, with an altitude of 6,293 feet, stands about midway between the two ends of the range. When viewed from one of the summits, the general surface of

*C. H. Hitchcock : Geology of New Hampshire, vol. i, p. 623, 1874.

near Mount Washington. 5

the range is seen to be a gently swelling and sagging upland, hardly flat enough to call a table land or plateau, yet with slopes so gradual as to excite attention from even a casual visitor. The smooth “lawns” from which the several conical summits rise gradually several hundred feet, find extension in many places down the flanks of the range in graded spurs or “ridges”? which separate the deep ‘‘ravines” or gulfs.” These profound hollows in the sides of the range, heading sharply in crescentic precipices and stretching forward as broad U-shaped troughs, are the dominant features of the range, add- ing greatly to the impression of height which one gets when viewing the mountains from below. If such gulfs” occur at all on the lower ranges of the White Mountains, they are at least less striking there than on the Presidentia] Range.

The greater part of <