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HISTORY OF CANADA.

WILLIAM KINGSFORD, LL.D., F.R.S. ICanadaI

VOL. IV. [ I 756-1 763.]

TORONTO. DOMINION OF CANADA :

ROWSELL & HUTCHISON.

LO-VDON ; TRUENER Si CO., LUDGATE HILL.

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PREFACE TO THE FOURTH VOLUME.

The present volume brings to a conclusion the history of French rule in Canada. An opinion may prevail in some quar- ters, that occasionally its detail has been elaborately related, and that undue importance has been given to incidents, which might have been more summarily presented. As I was actuated by the conviction, that it was unwise to pass over any event which had any social or political relation to the early years of the history of Canada, I have striven to embrace within my narrative all that may be said legitimately to belong to it. I do not here refer to the dramatic interest attached more or less to the several inci- dents, for the feeling thus appealed to must ever be a relative matter, and what may strike one mind as entertaining, may to another appear dry and jejune. I was myself impressed by the thought, that the subject had to be considered from the higher view of the application of the past to our present condition. Any honestly written impartial narrative must throw light on the subject of which it treats ; and a proper appreciation of what has taken place from the transfer of Quebec to the French in 1632 by Charles I., to the capitulation of Montreal in 1760, cannot fail to aid in leading to a just consideration of any claim, which may be put forward to-day, whatever its character and by whomsoever it may be advanced.

One essential principle presented itself to my mind in the preparation of this work : that in order to make it plain and intel- ligible, it was indispensable that the events which took place synchronously in Great Britain, France and the then southern British provinces, should be understood. I have accordingly briefly introduced the narrative of such events, and in doing so I deemed it incumbent upon me, to consider the principal actors who have appeared from time to time in Europe and America, upon the political stage. The four volumes which have appeared may be regarded as an introduction to the history of British rule in Canada, which itself may be divided into three periods. The first

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period includes the years succeeding the conquest, to 1791, when the Canada act divided the province into Upper and Lower Canada. This act continued in operation for the subsequent iialf- century, during which the two provinces remained independently constituted with separate legislatures, until the i ith of February, 1841, when they were formed into the one province of Canada. Thus, this portion of our history extends over eighty years. It includes the remarkable events of the quarrel with the revolted British colonies, and the war which led to the independence of the present United States: the war of 1811-14 with that republic; the rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada, and the development of constitutional government in the province.

The first of these events is so closely connected with Canada, that it calls for a special narrative of what took place in connection with the province. Moreover it was the direct cause of the settle- ment of Upper Canada by a British population ; a fact which must be kept in view in the^istory of Ontario for the following seventy years. It created a dominant feeling in the minds of the first settlers and their children ; of those who suffered to sustain the United Empire, "the U, E. loyalists," as their descendants proudly call themselves. These men sacrificed all they had in this world, and left behind them many of the associations which make life dear, to carve out of the woods a hard, toilsome existence, that they might live and die under the British flag ; and they were not unhappy, for they acted up to their convictions, and from their sense of duty; and they retained in the greatest trial and privation, the proud feeling of unswerving self-respect.

The second period is constituted in the quarter of a century, during which the province of Canada, embracing the present provinces of Ontario and Quebec existed as a unity until 1867, when confederation of the whole of the British North American provinces took place: at which date the third period commences when British America became known as the Dominion of Canada.

I trust, if circumstances permit, to continue the history of British rule in Canada to the 11th of February, 1S41, the date within half a century of the present time, when the union of the two provinces was consummated. Most of the enmities, political

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and social, of that day, have passed away with the men who figured in them. The task of describing the concluding years is not without difficulty, for some of the younger actors at that date still survive, and retain at least the family and party recollections which were engendered by the struggle. If I succeed in carrying out my purpose, I will endeavour to avoid in any way awakening this ancient feeling of discord. I have no desire to revive old feuds, and I must ever bear in mind that I am "walking upon ashes under which the fire is not extinguished."

I hope it will not be considered that " 1 protest too much," if I add that I have endeavoured to fulfil the promise made in the early pages of this work, to be fair and honest. So far as I know myself, I have had no theory to advocate, no purpose to attain. I have endeavoured to render a serviae to the dominion by the completion of a record which it is my hope may prove acceptable in all quarters. This intention at least may be remembered in my epitaph.

I will add that I have neglected no source of information. In addition to the many known authorities, I have consulted the MSS. at my disposal in the parliamentary library, and the copies of the imperial records in the Archives so admirably collected by the ability and untiring industry of Mr. Brymner. I do not know one source of information I have failed to consult. Whatever the defect in my own use of these authorities, I cannot accuse myself of want of industry, or of an absence of earnestness in my labours. In conclusion, I will venture humbly to quote the words of Grote, in the preface to his immortal history of Greece. It is "only within the last . . . years that I have been able to devote to the work that continuous and exclusive labour, without which, though much may be done to illustrate detached points, no entire or complicated subject can ever be set forth in a manner worthy to meet the public eye."

I repeat my deeply felt thanks to those friends, who have so unselfishly and generously aided me in my undertaking.

W. K. Ottawa, Canada,

8/A October, 1890.

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CONTENTS OF THE FOURTH VOLUME.

BOOK XII.-CHAPTER 1.

MoDtcslm relums to Montreal The Iroquois' depuUlion Meels de Vaudreuil New York aulhorilies and the Six

Nations Letters of sir William Johnson Indian discouragement Johnson retains tribes in British

Edmund Aikin meets Johnson Result of Indian deliberations Atuck of French oulposts aban-

Major Robert Rogers . The rangers ^ Montcalm and de Vaudreuil ~* Their unsalisfactor; cektions Rcgere' scouting party north of

Ticonden^l . Rogers' retreat His skirmish with the French Risers praised for gallantry . R^ud de yaudreuil's expedition His attack of William Henry Major Eyre .... Alarm given to the garrison Le Mercier demands surrender The demand refused French aliaclc Retreat of the French . Eyre's gallant defence . Relieved by colonel Monroe . Destruction of British vessels > Montcalm b Montreal .

Opposed to marriage of the young

Encourages marriages by men in the ranks ....

High play in Canada .

Dearness of provisions ,

Weak condition of the British garrisons ....

CHAPTER II.

{"757-] Lord Loudoun ... Treasonable letters to the due de

Mitepoii The letters sent to Dublin Geoi^ Croghan, the supposed

Loudoun recommends attack of

Quebec .... William Shirley . His meeting with Loudoun . Dithcully with the provincial offi-

Winslow's good sense . Shirley's neglect of Oswego . Impoilance of Oswego Loudoun's feeling as to its loss AtUck of fort Granville on th

Loudoun on the fall of Oswego Provisions illegally eiported to the

Provinces refuse quarters for the

British troops Troops assemble at New York for

attack of Quebec .

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CONTENTS.

Loudoun sails from New Yotk Webb left in command Dinwiddie raises embargo Loudoun arrives at Halifax . The "cabbage plaming expedi'

Loudoun's good sense . The episode of lord Charles Hay . The large force at Louisbourg Attack on Louisbourg abandoned . Holbourne sails to the Totlress Fleet caught in > huiricane . Loss of the "Tilbury" Dispersion of the British fleet

CHAPTER III. ['757- 1 De Machautt, minister of marine . D'Argenson, secretary of war

Their dii.missal ....

The Jesuit parly in France in the

ascendant ....

The church objects to be included

Colonel Meserve .... Colonel Young sent with reinforce-

CH AFTER IV.

['757.] De Uvis sent to Carillon . 48

Marin arrives with western Indians 49 Expedition against fori Edw: Montcalm arrives at Ticonderoga . Skirmishes .... De Corbiire ascends lake George 50 Colonel Parker's advance His defeat and loss The French force march by w<

side of lake' . De L^vis in command . The remaining force ascends lake

Arrival before the fori .

De Livis establishes himself to the

«./«<

Arrogance of the clergy moderated 40 DiHerence of view as to foreign

policy .... Alliance with Maria Theresa Damien's attempt on the king's life The king's piqui d'ifingit Tlie dauphin summoned Madame de Pompadour in di^rac Recovery of the king . De Paulmy, secretary of war Attack of William Henry resolvei

The garrison of William IIem7 Colonel Monroe in command Difficulties of Webb's position

south . Montcalm sends

Montcalm's letter . Monroe's answer . The fort de^iibed Strength of the garrison Webb unjustly blamed for 1

lieving fort Without strength to aid it De L^vis between Webb and fort Webb applies to provincial gover

« for m Advises Monroe I

nake best

Montcalm obtains letter Number of French troops Character of the Indians present . Their conduct during the siege Difficulty in managing them . liatterles opened . Montcalm receives red ribbon

Deplorable condition of besieged .

53

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CONTENTS.

PACE.

CHAPTER Vr.

Articles of capitulalior .

63

63

['7S4-I7S7-)

Scarcity of food in Canada .

63

Pitt's ministry

Pre»enls E="ison being inarched

Death of Pelham .

prisoners of war to Montreal

63

Political complications .

64

Foi, first lord Holland

Death of the Prince of Wales

blame ....

65

Newcastle's influence .

The British prepared lo march ou

Secret service money .

of the intrenchment

6S

Sir Thomas Robinson .

Attack of the Indians .

66

Fox deserts Pitt .

66

Discredit of Newcastle's adroinis

Indians attack column .

67

tralion ....

67

Admiral Byng .

The priioners taken by Ihem re

LossofMinorta . .

deemed

68

Resignation of Newcastle .

Parties sent out to protect fugitive.

68

RichacdCrenville, first lordTemple

Indians return home .

69

George II

De Bellollre ....

69

The duke of Cumberland

70

Causes of Pitt's dismissal

Depression in the British province

71

The country greatly excited . Formation of Pitt's ministry .

CHAPTER V.

[1757-1758.1 Scarcity of food in Canada .

The greatest England has ever seen

74

CHAPTER Vir.

Situation of the French

74

[1757- '758-1

Rations of troops reduced .

75

Pitt's new ministry .

The regiment of Beam

7S

Early reverses

Women demand bread

76

Convention of Clostem Severn

Refuse 10 eat horseflesh

76

The French overrun Hesse .

liorse-flesh served out to the troop-

77

Duke de Richelieu

De Uvis' Srmness

77

Duke of Cumberland .

His address to the troops

78

Pill's magnanimity

HU««a™«W; . .

79

Dread of an invasion in England

Montcalm's letter lo de Moras

79

Feeling in the country .

He detcribea his position

So

Expedition to France .

Increase in prices in Canada

St

-First menlion of Wolfe's name

Trial of de Vergor and de Villera

S2

Attack directed against Rochefon

Both exonerated .

Sz

Failure of the operations

Civil officers desire lo leave Canad

83

Mord.tunl tried by court-martial

84

Condition of the army .

The war of outposts

S4

The national spirit re-awakened

R<^r'« defeat

85

Operations in America determined

HU escape ....

85

on ....

86

Louisbourg to ije attacked

De Liiii to attack Oswego .

86

. Appointment of Wolfe - -

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'; Junes Wolfe

,His Mnh

j His diligence ><

' His affaire lU caur wilh Clu

In command of the icHh

Visits France

Lord Temple's Table concerning

Wolfe .... Temple, first lord Grenville . His impeiiincnce to George H. His intrigues His siory to be rejected

The barTMks on fire . . i

Attack persevered in . . i

Leforer takes ' ' le Prudent " and

The whole French fleet destroyed

(note] I

j Desperate condition of ihe foriress i

I Capitulation proposed . . I

I Terms refused . . I

Finally accepted . . I

British lake possession of the fort'

News received in England Fortifications demolished Safety of Itrilish- American p inces <lne to the mother c<

Mde. de Dmcour .

CHAPTER VHI.

II7S8.] Louisbourg .

The fortress and its garrison The British force Danger in landing Captain Ferguson Bosca wen's determinalion Kennington cove . Bad weather Landing attempted Heavy fire of the French Landing effected . The French picket repulsed The British take up position The marquis De^oultes Wolfe opens bis batteries Ships sunk in the harliour Sortie of ihe French British lines advance L'Arelhuse, captain de Vauclain De la Houliire oiganizes a sortie Burning of "le Cilebre," " I'Ei Ireprenant" and " te Capri-

BOOK Xin.— CHAPTER I.

['758-1759-]

After the conquest . i.

Thoughts of [iroceeding lo Quebec I.

Lord Rollo sent to He Saint Jean (Prince Edward island) . ' The population .

Major Balling at Sydney

Major Morris at Cape Sable

Monckion at Saint John

Ascends Saint John River

Major Scott sent to the Petilcodiac

Hauen ascends river Saint Jt^n

Wolfe ordered to Gasp£ \ Wolfe returns lo England .

Barrington's letter lo Wolfe .

Wolfe's i^ly

The provincial troops

General Abercrombie

His character

His want of artillery

La prtite i^m

Order repudiating capitulation of William Henry .

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CHAPTER ir. [1758.1

Abercronibie descends lake George |i Montcalm at TiconderogJ, . ti The defences .11

Landing of Abercrambie |i

The advance of Abercrombie's

Death of lord Hone . n

Hit death without influence on the

Howe not sent to control Aber- crombie . v

'^ Montcalm's force . .11

Failvre of attack from want of

The intrenchmcnt of a^>i . . t Bivoaac of British force night

before attack . . I

Report that de L^vis was expected I Mr. Clerk, engineer, recommends

French disposition for defence Britith attack resolved upon . Storming parlies repulsed Galluiirj of the attack Retreat withoni confusion British retire 10 saw mills Bivouac there the night of the Sth

joir ....

British retreat, ascending the take

British losses

Wisdom of the retreat .

Incident daring action .

Few iiores only left behind by

News of disaster in England . CHAPTER III.

['758.] No advantage gained from repulse 177 Behaviour provincial troops . . 177 One colonel Harl .178

His miscDiHluct .... 17S

R^ets' expedition to Wood's

His iight near fort Anne Losses on both sides . Generals on both sides perplexed Amherst reaches Boston Arrives at fort Geoi^e . Bradslreet proposes the attack of

Calaraqai Ori^nization of his force Proceeds on the expedition . Takes Cataraqui . The commandant Payan de Nojan Importance of fort Frontenac Relief despatched from Montreal Major Duplessis Chevalier Benoit sent to Pron.

Ilradstreet's information concei

ing the Indians French attempts at conciliation De Rigaud's mission . '' Difference in treatment of Indians

by French and English British troops go •"•'• —;-•"

Abercrombie recalled . French troops go into »

CHAPTER IV. 1'758]

Fort Duquesne

Devastntion of Pennsylvania 1

Maryland Hrigndier John Forbes .

Difficulties with the provini

legislatures . Bouquet second in command Question of route 10 fort Duquc Geoi^e Washington Diflicullies of route Raestown .... Road cut to Cumberland

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Troops commence to asstmbte . 196 Washington opjiosetl to matcb

through Pennsylvania CompatiKon of routes . Washington's views Indians.troublesoineand unreliable 199 Work on tlie Kaeslown road Forbes at Sliippcnsbuig Fires^iii/r/culorlallorLouisbourg : The same for taking of Niagira Advancing force troubled by In-

Arrives before fort Duquesi His altem|]led attack . His defeat . His losses .

Reaches foil Duquesne to \

abandoned . Walls blown up . British lake possession of ground . Sile called Piltsbur^ . De Ligneris retreats to Venango . Mercer placed in charge of fort Forbes' broken health . Hisdealh .... His genius and patriotism

CHAPTER VI.

[1 759-1 isidered unassailable by

^ C&nada looked upon as under the protection of the Virgin .

Thee.

ilofwar

Advises discontinuance of advance Forbes delennines to proceed The advance continued

Defeated force arrives at Loyal

Hannan . . . 205 Washington ordered to Raestown 205

de Ligneris of presence of

Hiitish force .... 206 Sends expedition against Loyal

Hannan ...

The Fiench carry off horses . De Ligneris' sense of bis danger The Indian treaty at Ea!,ton Forbes' service in effecting it The Indians on the Ohio abandon

the French alliance Washington arrives at Loyal Han-

Forbes at Raestown Suffering from dysentery, ci

on hurdle \o faltering in liis purpose .

Keli

No danger anticipated al

Montcalm at Montreal .

Pouchot seni to Point flU Ba

At Niagara

Defence of Lake Champlain

De llougainville arrives frotn

Fiance . Accompanied by 1

nforcements

tilings bievets of promotion . Attention bcsloweil on Quebec Troops ))osled for its defence Ue Livis arrives . Council of war UeVaudre

s of

Louisbourg Duquesne reach

London

Wolfe offers his services . i

Is off,re<i command of enpedition 2

Hisst:iff a

Difticully with rrgird to Carleton 3 Brigadier Monckton .2

George Townshend a

Townshend's letter to his irife . 3 brigadier James Murray . 2

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CONTENTS.

xiii

CHAPTER VII.

British losies . . . .

25s

[1759-1

Death of captain Ochterlony .

iSS

Admiral Saunders

229

CHAPTER VIIT.

Appoinled admiml

Sails

130 23'

[1759]

Darell sent la ihe Sninl Lnwrence

Projeeled entteuclimetit nt He aux

Undsat tleaiix Coudres

232

Coudres

256

Some young officers taken pris-

Exiie<lition to destroy French ships

256

ODcrs ....

233

De Eougainuille .

257

Boals examine channel

234

Murray's attempt at Pointe aux

Wolfe's forte at LouisImiut^

23S

Trembles

257

136

Murray attacks Uecha.iibeau

257

Fleet sails liani Loutsbourg

33»

Saint Anloine and Ssint Croix

The British toast on sailing .

ns

burned ....

258

The fleet teaches Anticosli .

i39

French prisoners at Quebec .

258

"Old Killick" -

241

De Vaudreuil adilresses letter 10

The troops knd at ihe island o

Wolfe ....

25S

Orleans

241

Barry's reply

259

The scene of action

242

Surrender of Niag.im known a

Failure of the fire ships

243

Quebec

259

243

St, Luc de la Corne

260

Point LtSvis allacked .

244

De Levis leaves Quebec fo

The French Indians

^45

M.mlreal . . -

260

Wolfe lakes possession of ground

Abenak is bring in prisoners .

360

»45

Vessels ascend above Quebec

260

Acquainted with upper ford

245

Provisions brought by old men

Indian attack

246

women and children

260

Deserters from the Hrilish camp

146

Attack of the bay of St. Paul

261

Charesi reconnoitres Point Levis

247

Attack of south shore .

261

Fruitless Canadian attack of Iha

Saint Joachim burned .

262

post ... .

248

L'Ange Gardien and Chalea

248

Iticher burne.1

262

British ships sail above city .

248

Wolfe's sickness .

263

Poiote aux Trembles attack eii b

Meeting of three brigadiers .

263

Carlelon

249

Determination to carry on opera

British parties bring in prisoners

250

lions above the town ,

.64

Failure of the fire-raft .

250

Fortification of tie aui Coudres

264

French prisoners sent back .

250

Difficulty of landing troops .

265

Indians in amlxish under de

Movement of ships

j6s

Repemigny attack British

. 366

force ....

J5I

British abandon camp at Mon

V Wolfe's proclamation .

251

morency

. 266

Attack on French lines at Mon

morency

2J2

Rouge ....

. 267

The attack repulsed

253

Scarcity of provisions .

. 268

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CONTENTS.

Non co-operalion of Amherst

269

Hears that town has surrendered

29s

Wolfe again ill .

270

Want of provisions at Quebec

295

Troops placed on board fransport

270

De Levis retreats to Jacques Carlie

296

Wolfe's lasl despatch .

Jji

Lord ColviUe in "Norlhumber

Wolfe's lasi order

271

land " sent to Halifax in com

The landing at the anse au Foulo

171

mand ....

297

DeVergor ....

273

Saunders returns to England with

Strength of the BHtish force

i74

fleet ....

298

French provision boats expected

*7S

Murray placed in command .

29S

De liougainville fll Cap Rouge

175

Scarcity of money at Quebec

29S

The landing effected

176

News in London .

299

The line formed . . ,

277

^ Wolfe's memory .

300

^77

Snunder's high character

302

The French force .

178

Wolfe's monument . .

304

Reasons for Montcalm's attack

280

Terms of capilulation of Qticbec

30s

; Wolle-s tactics . . .

282

Feeling of the Uritish troops

283

The action of the 13th of Sep

BOOK X1V,-CHAFTEK

tember ....

283

[1759]

\ Wolfe wounded .

283

Amherst's preparations

3"

■Wolfe's death . .

284

Lake Champlain to be attacked

3"

CHAPTER IX.

Osviego .... British force in North America

312 312

[I7S91

La pfliti giKire

313

Monckton wounded

28;

Rogers' scouts

313

Townshend in eommanii

28s

The Penusylvanian legisialHre

313

Montcalm and de Seneiergue

Claims payment uf monty due

314

wounded .

285

PrideauiiselectedtocominBnde;(pe

Montcalm's death

2S6

dition against Niagara ,

3'S

French4osses

287

The Sin Nation Indians

315

The capitulation .

287

Situation on the Ohio .

3'6

De Rameuiy

287

Prideaux leaves Schenectady

3'6

His orders from de Vaudreuil

288

Frederick Haldim.iud .

317

His position at Qtteliec

289

His character

3'8

Memoir of citizens .

289

l>eft in command at Oswego

319

Council of war .

289

Attacked by Saiut Luc de la Corn

3I9

Stores at Beauport plundered

290

Attack repulsed .

320

De Ramezay's surrender

291

Pouchot in command at Niagara

32»

Terms of capitulation .

292

Strength of Niagara gnrrison

322

The cily occupied by the British

293

Arrival of British force

3"

De Uvis hears of Montcalm'

Joncaire de Chabert .

323

death ....

293

Prideaux invests the place

323

Proceeds lo Jacques Canier .

293

Meeting of Indians . .

313

Attempts to relieve Quebec .

294

Death of Prideaux

3M

Troops arrive at I'ointe au

Arrival of garrisons from the Ohi

Trembles . . .

295

forts ....

3*5

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surprised on the march by Johnson 335

Their dereat 325

Attrmpteil surprise of British lines 326 The conncil of war . . 326

Surrender of N Ligara . 316

Terms of surrender . . .3*7

Haldimand summoned by Johnson 317 He appeals lo Amhersl . 317

Gage sent in command . 328

Effect of loss of Niagara . 328

Fort Rouillc at Toronto bumed . 329

CHAPTER IT. ['7591 Amhersl negotiate<: loans Bills issued by New York and

Troops arrive al head of lak<

Strength of British force Expedition starts . Descends lake George . landing made at Ticonderoga Finds inlrenchmenis abandoned Activity of Indians Fort Carillon attacked Colonel Townsliend killed .

Force sent on to Crown Point

Crown Point abandoned

Gage urged to descend (he Saint

Champlain a British lake Road opened towards the e

No. 4 . - Crown Point to be restored . . 336 Captain Kennedy sent to Wolfe . 336 The Ahenakis They take Kennedy and his party

prisoners

Risers sent to chastise Abenakis . 338 His boats taken . . .338

His painful march Anrives al village . Deslrofs it with great skughl

Provisions sent by Amherst 1

mouth of Amonoosuc Taken by one Stephen . His infamous conduct . Rogers without food Descends Connecticut . Arrives at Crown Point Gage's eiptanations Lateness of the season Arrival ofllulchins and Stolio -.. ; Vessels completed on lake Cham-

pim .... Attack of the French vessels fitormy weather makes advance

Troops go into ufinler quarte

Major Skene

Amherst arrives at Albany .

CHAPTER III.

De Levis ascends the Sainl Law-

. 348

Arrives at La Presentation Insensibility lo Indian female

Orders island lo 1>e forlilied . Returns lo Montreal Disposition of French troops l,e Mercier sent lo France . Vessels arrive before Quebec Caplain Miller of the "Racehorse' Loss of Brilish seamen De Levis'allempt to harass garrisoi Proposed attack of British garrison 35 Movement deferred until spring be Levis' projects Mgr. de Ponibriand

3S*

His

ia«<^im

The last French '

' Te Deum " for

3S3 353

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CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.

[1759-1760,] Marray at Quebec Condition of ihe city . French priKmeri seni to France Fleet sails away . Scarcity Tor firewood Discipline relaxed

Marray hears of iiitendeil attack Places force at Point I .^vis . Men suffer from frost bile Murray's ortli nances Hears of arrival of French force s

Point L^vis . Sickness of the garrison Warn of money The assistance given by fjeet befor

leaving .... Murray's difficulties Aluck of French outposts . Means taken to resist attack British vessels repaireil Cap Rouge fortified Canadian inhabilants ordered U

leave Ihe cily Fable of the gunner on the ice Murray marches five regiments tn

Saint Foy Unable to form camp on the plain:

of Abraham . De Uvis embarks his force . Lands at Pointe aux Trembles Advance to Saint Foy . Murray hears of arrival Trying period of year . Murray marciies out ofQuebee Battle ofthezSih of April . Strength of the British force The killed and wounded The French force The siege commenced . Murray sends "Racehorse" ti

Halifax. Colville leaves Halifai Murray's letter to Amherst .

Explains his tactics . 371

fAGE. Seven days of siege .371

. 356 Arrival of Ihe " Lowestoft " . 373

. 356 Arrival of Colville's ships . 373

357 French vessels attacked . 374

3S7 De Vauclain in "I'Atalante" . 374

357 The French camp abandoned . 375 35** De Levis' retreat . .375 35^ I,o5s of the " Lowestoft" . 376 35^ Correspondence between Amherst

358 and de l.^vis . 376

359 Campaign considered . 377

359 De Uvis' losses . .378

360

361 CHAPTER V, =" t.7«.J

362 Indian attacks, lake Champlain . 379

363 Amputation of one hundred toe- . 380 363 The Penn^yivanian legislature . 3S0

363 Amherst prepares his advance . 381

364 Heats from Murray by Monlresor 3S1

364 Desertion of the provincial troops 381 Rogere'

365 Noix 365 Planof Ihecampaign - . 383

Amherst at Oswego

365 Strength of the British fort. Embarkation .... 384

366 Pouchot at fort Livi 366 Amherst's attack . 366 Pouchot's surrender 366 Terms imposed

366 Indians not allowed reprisals

367 Governor of New York notified

368 that the Mohawk was safe 36S from Indian attack

369 Amherst prepares to descend the 369 Saint Lawrence .

360 His dread of the rapids

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CONTENTS.

CHAPTER Vr.

11760.1

Mnrray leaves Quebec

Issues pr[>clainaliDn

Lord Rolto disarm* populatioi

De Levis at Berlhier

Hurray lands at Sorel, burns the

place Arrives at Contrecoeur . Haviland'x advance from laki

Cham plain Death of de Langy De Bougainville in command British force lands on east side Passes round fori . Attacks shipping . Surrender of lie aux Noix Canadian militia desert Saint John's abnndoi>ed Sairender of Chambiy . t>o Levis appeals 10 Indians Hears of Amherst's advance Moves troops to Montreal

CHAPTER VII. [1760] Council of war Memoir read by Bigot . Capitulation determined upon Negotiations for capitulation De Levis sends messenger to

Amherst Amherst's reply . E>e L^vis asks for resistance

prolonged French colours destroyed The word of honour given of the

French officers they did not

Burton appointed governer o

Three Rivers Elliott sent to the Resligouche His ship wrecked on Sable islam Gage appointed governor of Mont

tsllejes

; and Thr

Arrives at Quebec Census furnished to AmhersI Amherst returns to New York Commodore Byron's naval opera- tions, bay of Chaleurs, in

l-'r

Articles of capitulation. Montreal, vtrbatioi. French text . 417-

CIIAPTER VIII. 1.760.1 War continued in Europe Death of George n. . His character Her present majesty's influen

iciety .

Constitutional government of

George II. . His death a loss to the empire V Canada surrendered to Great

Problem of government Le " r^ne militaire " . Misrepresentations concerning it Jacques Viger

Judge Dominique Mondelel . Dr. Labrie .... Kurlon governor of Three Rivers Legal procedure . Gage governor of Montreal . Disarming Canadian militia . Murray at Quebec Ordinances ....

Th.

Articles of capitulation

French regiments lay down arms

AiientiODE paid to de Vaudreuil

Departure of French troops

Ri^feis sent to Detroit

EitaUishmeni of British garrisons 409 . French Canadians before conquest 44]

409 Early legal proceedings French

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XVlll

CONTENXa

'^ Gentry only could read and write . 444 Honesty of Amherst's go*ernment 444

Local ion of courts district of

Montreal Special court for city . Two e»eculions Only reported Canadians put on mourning for

George IT. Address to Gage ciliiens

Montreal

Treaty of peace . - - . 446 Gage leaves Montreal . Captains of militia present him

o Mor

real

Location of courts Three Rivers Ilaldimand's report of French

Value New York money

The king's approval of Amherst's

Influence on the haiilatils

CHAPTER IX.

[1761-1763.1

Lord Egremoni's census [1760]

45^

Montreal population

452

Three Rivers "

- 453

Quebec - , .

453

Tabulated total of population

' 454

The fur trade

455

Indian posts.

- 455

Gage's r^ulatlons

.456

TfUsdeBsuU

457

Regulations regarding .

457

British jusiir« to the Indian .

458

The card money .

-458

Calumny that British officials

unfairly obtained it

45S

459

Burton's proclamation .

459

Card rnoney out of use in 1760

459

Its con^deration included in treaty

Final settlement regarding it Certificates given lo French Cana-

French Canadian feeling as to

religion 461

Necessity felt of obtaining native

bom ecclesiastics Moilern feeling regarding religion . 461 Roman catholic church during

interregnum .... 461 M. Montgolfier Mgr. Briand chosen bishop . . 465 Population of Quebec in Merchants assist them Soldiers give one day's provisions

in month for support of needy 464 Asserted departures from Canada 464 The fact disputed .... 465 Consideration sliewn lo Canadians 466

CHAPTER X. I1760-1761.] Events preceding treaty of peace . 467 Administration George II. .

George III

His personal character .

Formed by princess dowager

Augusta of Saxe Golha

Her arrival in Eoj^l.-ind

John Stuart, earl of liute . . 4;

First meeting with the prince of

Wales .... Lord Bute an amateur actor . Accepted lover of princess royal Bute's character . Caricatures of the day . The monarch's constitutional posi-

George the third's acce

Pitt's objection to language king's

Bute's policy to discontinue war

(ibyG00»^IC

CONTENTS.

His intrigues with lord HoUemess 477 Attacks upon Tilt Bribery bI ihe elections L^ge dismissed Dlflerences in the ministiy Holdetncis' ivsipiaiioD

Bute secretBrjr of state . Ministerial changes Pitt desires to grant

rights to Newronndland Pitt's conduct as to the peace De Choiseul desirous of peace Negoltalors .... Offer of de Choiseul